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THE JOURNAL OF
Vol. XV. — JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1902. — No. LVIII.
THE STORY OF BANTUGAN.
This is a legend of the Mohammedan tribes or Moros (Moro is
the Spanish for Mohammedan or Mussulman) of Mindanao, P. I.,
in the valley of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It deals with the
adventures of Bantugan and of his friend Datto Baningan.
Bantugan is the national hero, and every child is taught the story
of Bantugan until he almost knows it by heart. This is the first
translation out of the original tongue. Given by word of mouth and
translated in 1900 at Cotta Bato, Mindanao, by Major Ralph S.
Porter, Surgeon U. S. V. Bantugan and his relatives were :
Palamata Bantugan, son of Tinumanan sa Lugun Minulucsa Da-
lendeg (brother of the earthquake and thunder).
The brothers of Bantugan were : 1, Mapalala Macog ; 2, Madali
Macabancas ; 3, Dalumimbang Dalanda ; 4, Damadag la Lupa ; 5,
Maladia Langig ; 6, Marandang Datto Sulug ; 7, Malinday Asaba-
rat ; 8, Mudsay sa Subu Subu ; 9, Pasandalan na Murud ; 10, Bendera
Mudaya ; n, Pamanay Macalayan ; 12, Pandi Macalele.
The sisters of Bantugan were : 1, Alcat Ulauanan ; 2, Mandanda
Uray ; 3, Dalinding u Subangan.
The sons of Bantugan were: 1, Balatama Lumana; Pandumagan
Dayuran ; 2, Alungan Pidsiana Lumalang sa Dalisay ; 3, Malinday
Abunbara Lumanti Dowa Dowa ; 4, Tankula Bulantakan Bulu Bulu
sa Lagat ; 5, Tagatag sa Layagum sa Pigculat ; 6, Lumbay sa Peg-
caualau Daliday Malindu ; 7, Lumbay Magapindu.
Once upon" a time there came a terrific hurricane which carried
the house of the sister of Bantugan from the village of Bombalan to
While there it was seen by a Spanish general who was lying off
the coast in his warship. The Spanish general's name was Minda-
lunu sa Tunu-Miducau sa da Uata.
The general put the house with the sister of Bantugan on his war-
ship and carried her away to his town of Sugurungan a Lagat
144 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
The king of this town was Dumakulay Amalana Dumombang
For capturing this maiden the general was given high rank and
honor and was ordered to build a house for the sister close to the
house of the king.
Now when the king asked Alcat (which was the name of Bantu-
gan's sister) to give him some mbama to chew, she refused, saying,
" Do not talk to me, for I have been taken from my brothers and am
heavy at heart ; if you wish to marry me, go to my brothers and ask
them for me." x
When the brothers of Alcat knew that she had been stolen away
from them, they were heavy at heart also. Then said Bantugan,
" Prepare all of our warboats and launch my great warship Linu-
muntan Mapalo Mabuculud Linayum. Put out all our battle-flags
and let all my brothers gather with me to search for our sister."
When they were all aboard the captain of Bantugan's warboat
called out to it, " Sail like the wind, Linumuntan, so that we may
overtake the wicked Spanish general who has carried away the sister
of our datto " (chief).
But the ship did not obey his command, and Malinday Asabarat,
the seventh brother of Bantugan, said, " It must be that we have a
bad soldier on board ; let us find out who he is and kill him, that we
may proceed on our journey." Then Malinday pointed out a soldier
whose name was Masualo Savani Masunu Sakasumba, whose great
fault was that he made love to the wives of the dattos and other
When this man knew he was to die, he said, " Tell my friends when
you return that I died in battle and not that I was executed."
Then Malinday took him to the bow of the ship and with one stroke
of his campilan (Moro broadsword) cut off his head. When the sol-
dier was dead the ship at once began to speed through the water with
tremendous velocity, so that all the great fish of the sea were much
Before long they came to a small island and there anchored, and
four men carried the body of the soldier ashore and buried it.
Mapalala Macog now suggested that they rest here a while and
sleep. While they were sleeping there came to anchor on the other
side of the island a warship of Datto Baningan, who was the ac-
cepted lover of Bantugan's sister, Alcat Ulauanan, who had been car-
1 Mbama — A package of bongo nut, bulla (pronounced booya) leaf, lime, and
tobacco, considered a delicious combination for a chew by the Moros. If a
Moro woman hands a roll of this to a man, it signifies that she is willing to receive
The Story of Banlugan. 145
ried away by the Spaniard, and whom Bantugan had started to search
Baningan had ordered the colintangan (large Moro xylophone) to
be played in his warship, which was called the Katipapabayan Lum-
bayan Dakadua, meaning the two-tailed crocodile of the sea.
Now Bendera Mudaya, the tenth brother of Bantugan, heard the
loud playing of Baningan's colintangan and he became very wroth,
for he thought it would disturb his brother Bantugan's rest, so he
called a thousand soldiers and had the lantakas (cannon) fired at the
ship of Baningan, and the shot carried away all the principal masts
of Baningan's ship and killed many of his soldiers.
Now Baningan's brother, whose name was Mapandala sa Dalen
Matankin sa Gavi (he that bites like the pepper of the deep forest),
called the master of the ship, whose name was Salindala Kabunga
Salgangka sa Bukau, and ordered him to return the fire ; but said the
master, " Let us first ask permission of Datto Baningan," who just
now awakened and inquired what had happened. Mapandala replied
that Bantugan's ship had fired on them and begged to be allowed to
fire back " No," said Baningan, " if we fire on Bantugan I can then
never marry his sister." " But," said the brother, " look at the ruin
of the ship and the loss of men. Let this woman go and let us revenge
ourselves." " No," said Baningan ; " seeing that you my brother still
live not even the loss of ships or men will compel me to attack the
great and honorable Bantugan."
So Baningan gave orders for his anchors to be raised and his ship
to be sailed straight for Bantugan's ship, that they might converse.
Baningan sat in the bow (ulunan) with two gold-embroidered um-
brellas held over him.
Now when Bendera Mudaya recognized that it was Baningan he
had fired at, he broke into tears and cried out, " Ama ku " (my father),
" do not scold me. I thought your ship was the ship of our enemies.
It is all my fault ; do with me as you will." " No," said Baningan ;
"we are equally sad, let us say no more of it. I but beg of Bantugan
to allow me to lash my ship to his." This was soon done and the
dattos greeted each other.
Then Baningan asked, "What brings you out in your warship with
so many soldiers and lantakas?" When Baningan had been told
that his sweetheart had been carried away by the Spaniards his
grief was very great, and with a common enemy these two dattos
sealed their friendship.
After a council it was decided that Bantugan should continue the
search by sea and that Baningan should go by land, as his ship was
no longer seaworthy.
After the council Baningan returned to his own ship and cast
146 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
loose from Bantugan, who sailed away. All the panditas (priests)
were now called together by Baningan and were asked for their advice
as to how to proceed to find the lost maiden. They told him, when
he started out, not to go as a datto with fine raiment and many fol-
lowers, but to go alone in the disguise of a tiruray, 1 and that if he
went this way he would surely meet with success.
So Baningan sent his brother Mapandala back with the ship to
their village of Cudarangen, there to be ruler in his stead. But the
brother's heart was heavy, for he wanted to go also on the trip, and
he begged unavailingly of Baningan to let him go, but he would not
consent. So Baningan went ashore and Mapandala put his ship about
to return home, but when Baningan was well out of sight Mapandala
turned again and started to follow Bantugan as best he could, mak-
ing many repairs to his ship.
In a day or two he passed by a large town called Pamamaluy a ig
Alamay a Lagat, and there encountered a great Spanish warship
whose captain inquired where he was from. Mapandala answered,
" From Cudarangen." Then the Spaniard asked him where he was
going. Mapandala answered, " To search for the sister of Datto Ban-
tugan." Whereupon the Spanish fired upon him ; the general on
the ship was the same one who had carried away Bantugan's sister,
and he ordered Mapandala to return to Cudarangen, saying that not
far away there was a fleet of a thousand Spanish ships waiting for
Bantugan and his followers. " Nevertheless," said Mapandala, " I
shall not return." And the battle began at once, between Mapan-
dala and the Spaniard. The latter soon won, and Mapandala was
badly injured so that his entrails fell out. Both boats were badly
injured and many were killed on both sides, but the Spaniards were
able to float and navigate, and they looted Mapandala's boat and
then returned to their village.
Mapandala's boat was finally cast upon the beach, where it was
seen by Baningan who came by there on foot at that very moment.
He at once boarded her, and when Mapandala saw some one coming
he cried out for water which Baningan brought him. When they
recognized each other Baningan embraced his brother and wept to
see him so sorely wounded. Mapandala said, "I am surely dying."
But Banignan called for a fairy from Cudarangen to take his brother
back and cure him there of his wounds with a great medicine which
he had at home in his chest. When the fairy had taken Mapandala,
Baningan went on his way.
1 A tiruray is one of a tribe that lives up in the mountains, sometimes in trees,
and in the most primitive way. They are gradually becoming extinct, dying of
starvation, from lack of energy enough to till the most fertile of soils.
The Story of Bantugan. 147
The warship of Bantugan finally reached the village of the Span-
iards, Sudurungan a Lagat, and there found a thousand Spanish war-
ships, who at once fired upon them, but the only effect of their firing
was to push Bantugan farther away, not a single cannon-ball pene-
trating his ship.
Baningan continued on his road, and after many days reached a
high hill from which he could see the great city of the Spaniards,
with many ships in the harbor and many more on guard at its en-
trance. This great display frightened Baningan very much, for he
thought to himself, " At the very door of the city I will die." So
he decided to go back to the brother of Bantugan, who was named
Pasandalan na Murud, and who was the sultan of I Labumbalan
Tankulabulantakan, and ask him what he should do in the face of
such dreadful obstacles.
He had not gone far until two little golden birds alighted on his
shield (klung) and told him not to go back, for he would be laughed
at, and all would say that he was not worthy of his sweetheart.
Baningan then smote his breast and decided to return to the search
even though he died ten times. He then hid his shield and cam-
pilan (broadsword) in a hollow rock and carried only a bow and
As he was passing along the coast he saw the ships of the Spanish
general sailing by who had destroyed his own boat. The Spanish
general also saw him and called to him to come on board his ship,
for he did not think that he had the walk — or carriage of a poor
tiruray. So Baningan went aboard the Spanish ships, and the
soldiers were so thick on the deck that he could not help stepping
on them as he passed. This made the soldiers mad, but the general
said, " Never mind ; he is only a poor tiruray, and does not know good
manners." The tiruray walked right up and sat down close by the
side of the general, which made the general mad on the inside, but
he did not show it. Then the general asked him, " Where are you
from ? " He answered, " From Lalansayan Lalanun." Now the
general knew that the king's brother lived with this family and so
the tirurary, who was Baningan in disguise, said that he had been
sent by the king's brother to inquire if it was true that the king had
captured the sister of Bantugan, and for the king to beware, for Ban-
tugan was a powerful and dangerous enemy. Then the general told
a great lie, saying that they had had a big war with Bantugan and
that Alcat had been given as a peace offering.
This great lie maddened the tiruray, so that for a minute he
wanted to go "idzavil" (run amuck or juramentado). 1 The general
1 Juramentado — A Moro who makes a vow before the priest to die taking the
148 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
noticed that the tiruray was getting mad, and asked, " Why are you
red in the face ? I believe that you are Baningan, and if you are
you will go no farther." But the tiruray answered and said,
" Show me Baningan, and I myself will slay him." Then the gen-
eral said, " Tell me truly from where you come ? " The tiruray
answered and said, " From Lansayan Aluna Lundingan Apamalui
Deliday Linauig Lumbay Lungan a Lagat, whose datto is Daliday
Linauig Lumbay Alungan a Lagat, who is a brother to your king."
Then the general and the tiruray shook hands, and the general
asked, " What is your errand here ? " The tiruray answered, " I
come by order of the brother of the king to see if it was true that
the king had the sister of Datto Bantugan in his city and if she was
beautiful or not." The general said, "She is as beautiful as the
The tiruray now asked the general to take him to see the sister
of Bantugan, for he alone would not be allowed to pass the gates.
So the general and Baningan went ashore and walked towards the
city of the king, and when they reached the gates the guard would
only allow the general to pass and would not admit the tiruray.
But the general said, " This tiruray is a good man and comes from
the town of the king's brother." Then the captain of the guard
said, " No, he cannot pass, for I know that in the city of the king's
brother there are no tirurays." " Yes," said Baningan, " that is true,
but I do not claim to live in the town of the king's brother, but
in a village near it named Malasan sa Ulay Uluban sa Bulauan."
" Well," said the captain of the guard, " you may go in ; you look
innocent at any rate." So in they went, and soon they came to the
second guard, whose captain asked the general, "What is your
business with the king ? " The general said, " To beg permission of
the king to return to my family." " Who is the tiruray with you,"
asked the captain of the guard.
" Oh, he is all right, I will vouch for him," said the general.
Then the captain of the guard said, " Well, you may both pass, but
the law is that all who pass this gate must pass through dancing."
So they both danced their way through the gate.
By and by they reached the house of the king, where there were
many guards, who did not care to have the tiruray pass, but the
king, when he heard that there was a tiruray below, ordered the
guard to admit him and bring the man up to him, and when the
tiruray had entered the palace he found the floor covered with
soldiers sitting and lying down. He clumsily stepped on several,
blood of a Christian, and believes that in so doing he will go at once to heaven.
So he starts out with his sword and attacks every Christian he can find until he is
The Story of Bantugan. 149
who immediately wanted to kill him, but the king said, " No, he is
only a tiruray and knows no manners ; do not hurt him." Then the
tiruray walked straight up to the throne and sat right down beside
the king, to the great fear of the general, who told him not to, for
the king would surely scold him or kill him. When the courtiers
saw this poor beggar take his seat by the king's side, they begged
permission to kill him for his presumption. But the king said, " No,
I will question him first."
While Baningan was seated beside the king he saw the armor of
his brother lying on the floor and covered with blood. His face
became red and the tears fell from his eyes, and he again wanted to
be an " idzavil," but on second thought decided not to, for if he did
he could not succeed in seeing his sweetheart.
The king asked him why his face was so red and why he was
crying. Baningan answered, " I cry, for I cannot see the sister of
Bantugan." Then asks the king, " What do you know of the sister
of Bantugan, and where do you come from ? " Baningan answered,
" From your brother's town." Then the king at once asked him,
" Is my brother well and happy ? " " Yes," said the tiruray, who
then asked, " Is the sister of Bantugan as beautiful as she is reported
to be ? " " Yes," said the king, " she is as beautiful as the moon."
Then Baningan asked the king's permission to see her so that he
could tell the king's brother of her beauty. So the king told the
tiruray to go and ask Alcat for bulla for the king to chew, and to
tell her that if she would not give it he would have her head cut off.
When the tiruray reached the house in which the sister of Bantu-
gan was kept, a wife of the king (whose name was Salagambal Kla
Undiganan) came forward and asked him what he wanted. When he
told her, she asked him to come in and sit down, but Baningan said,
" I wait for the order of the sister of Bantugan." But the sister of
Bantugan did not care to order the tiruray to come in, for he was of
low blood. But on the solicitation of the other wives of the king,
she told him to come in and sit down.
When the tiruray came in the house he sat down close to Alcat,
who scolded him for it, and ordered him away, but the wives of the
king said, " No, he is only a poor tiruray and knows no better ; let
him stay and we will have some sport with him."
Then Bantugan's sister asked him from whence he came. He
answered, " From Mapulud Salin Kikan Palau sa Linun Kayo."
Then Alcat at once asked him if he knew Datto Bantugan. The
tiruray answered and said, " Yes, I know him, but I have heard that
he was killed not long ago in a fight with the Spaniards. Also his
brother Mapalala Macog, who was killed by a crocodile, and all the
other brothers are dead in the warship of Dalumimbang Dalanda."
150 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
When hearing this the sister of Bantugan fell in a faint (the name
of the warship was Timbalangay a Uatu Timbidayala Sunga).
When Alcat had recovered from her faint, she asked the tiruray
if he knew Baningan. At this the tiruray laughed and showed his
teeth, which the sister of Bantugan recognized at once, but she gave
no sign of recognition. Then the tiruray said, " Baningan fell in a
cave a week ago and has not come out yet." Then he took a " ma-
lung " (a Moro dress) and put it on in Moro style and seized the sis-
ter of Bantugan and put her on his lap. She did not scold him, but
asked, " Can you win in a fight with the Spaniards and take me
home to my family ? " Baningan answered and said, " Win or lose,
I will not leave you. The king has sent me to bring him bulla from
you and if you don't give it he will kill you."
"Well," said Bantugan's sister, ''let him kill me; I will not give
him the bulla." Baningan now called the fairies to bring his campi-
lan and rodella and prepared himself for a fight. Alcat cried and said,
" If you leave me now even for a minute, you will never come back."
"Yes," said Baningan, "I will come back." He then rhade himself
invisible by a spell and went out to the harbor mouth where he could
get a stone to sharpen his campilan.
While all this was going on, the king became very impatient at
the non-return of the tiruray and sent for him. The women told
the messenger that the tiruray had gone some time before, and when
the king heard this he said, "The tiruray does not return, for he is
ashamed to return without the bulla which Bantugan's sister has
The king then ordered a well dug and had the sister of Bantugan
brought to it, that she might be drowned in it. But the courtiers
begged that she be spared, for, they said, " if you kill the sister of Ban-
tugan, we will surely have a war with Bantugan and his brothers, and
they are very brave men and have many followers." But the king
became more and more angry and took his sabre to kill the sister of
Bantugan. At that moment Baningan returned in his invisible state
and stood by her side. Alcat now said to Baningan, " What are you
going to do now ? " He answered, " I will take you up to the top
of the highest cocoanut-tree," which he did, and when he returned,
became visible to all the court clad in armor and with his campilan
and klung. He was at once surrounded by the general and the sol-
diers of the court, who attacked him, but Baningan defended him-
self so well that every stroke of his campilan cut off ten heads.
In the mean time, Bantugan arrived at the harbor mouth and
heard a great commotion in the city, which was caused by the fight
that was going on between Baningan and the king's soldiers. On
The Story of Bantugan. 151
learning this Bantugan ordered his ship to pass under the water
instead of on top, until he reached the point not far from the Span-
ish fleet. His ship then ascended to the surface, causing great com-
motion and excitement among the Spaniards. Madali Macabancas
now suggested that the ship be anchored bow and stern. This was
scarcely done before the Spaniards opened fire on them, and for
seven days the fire continued, so that the smoke was so thick that
it made the day the same as night.
At the end of the seventh day the smoke rose a little and the
Spaniards saw that Bantugan's boat was still uninjured, while they
were badly cut up. Their bullets had simply pushed Bantugan's
ship farther away.
Marandang Datto Sulug now said, " Let us go ashore with cam-
pilan (sword) and klung" (shield). This was done, and the course
of fighting was done at once. At the same time Baningan was still
fighting within the walls.
Just at this time Datto Sulune Cudungingan sa Colingtongan, of
the town of Sungiline a Dinal Hayrana Amiara, arrived in his great
warship, Galawongat Tinumcup Ukil a Keranda. This datto, whose
sister Bantugan was in love with, came to see if he could not act as
a peacemaker and have the quarrel cease, so that all should be
He first spoke to Bantugan and told him to quit fighting, so that
he could arrange matters with the king, and that anyway Bantugan
could not win, for the Spaniards were too many for him. Bantugan
answered, and said, " If they give back my sister, I will fight no
more, but if not, we will fight to the death." "Well," said the
datto, "wait till I have spoken to the king before you fight any
So the datto went in and reached the place where Baningan was
fighting and also prevailed upon him to wait and fight no more till
he had spoken to the king.
When the datto reached the palace, the king agreed to quit
fighting if Bantugan would give Alcat to him in marriage.
But the datto said, " If you insist on that condition, the war will
last for many years, for Bantugan surely will not give his sister to
you, for he has contracted to give her to Baningan."
" Well," said the king, " Alcat can go, but her companions must
stay, for I prefer Moros to Spaniards." Then the datto said, "No,
this is not good, the fighting will surely continue if you insist on
this." " Well," said the king, " let them all go, but I do not want
to see Bantugan at all."
So the datto carried the house and all the women and Alcat down
to the ship of Bantugan and put them on board, and Bantugan then
1 5 2 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
returned to his country with Baningan (the country of Bantugan
was named Ilian a Bumbalan Tankalabulantakan), and when they
reached there the house was replanted in its former place, and all
Now the older brother (Mapalala Macog) said, " Now let Bantugan
marry." And it was decided that Bantugan should marry Minilig
Urugung Managam a Dalendeg, who was the daughter of the sultan
Minialungan Simban of Minifigi a Lungung Minaga na Dalendeg.
Pasandalan na Murud now called Dalumimbang Dalanda and
Damagag da Lupa, and ordered them to make a journey to the
country of the sultan and ask his daughter's hand in marriage for
" Well," they said, " if the sultan refuses we will not return until
we have punished them well." '•' No," said Pasandalan, "that will not
do. I will get another messenger ; " and he called Mapalala Macog,
who answered the same as did all the other brothers. "Well,"
said Pasandalan, "I will go myself;" but Pandi Macalayan objected
and said, " No, let us send Bantugan's son, Balatama Lumana Alcat,
Pandumagan Dayuran." (This boy was the son of Bantugan's sister
whom Bantugan had married innocently, because when Bantugan
was born he was sent away on a ship and did not return until he was
grown up, and not knowing his sister Alcat, fell in love with her and
married her, and this boy was born before they knew of their relation-
When the son was found, he was brought before Pasandalan and
said, " Why am I, a child, to be sent on this errand. Why do not
some of my uncles go?" "Well," said Pasandalan, "I will go."
" No," said the son, " let me go as the rest wish." But now Bantugan
interrupted and objected to this small boy being sent on so important
and dangerous an errand. But the brothers all insisted, and so he
was sent away to prepare himself and to return to be instructed.
When he came back properly dressed, his mother also came crying,
not wanting him to go so far away. But the boy said, " I go be-
cause my uncles cannot."
Now Pasandalan said to him, " Have patience and speak good
word with the sultan, and even if they speak ill to you have patience
as long as you can, but when you cannot stand it any longer, of
course you must fight."
So the arms of Bantugan were given him, and when he started
away he told them that if he did not return in three months it would
surely be that he was dead. So he bade good-by to all and started
on his journey.
After he had been gone some hours Dalumimbang Dalanda dis-
guised himself and went out to try the boy's courage, and appeared
The Story of Ban tugan. 153
before Balatama as an old man and asked him where he was going.
Balatama answered and told his errand. Then Dalumimbang said,
"You cannot go any farther ; you must return." But the boy said,
"No, I will continue on my errand." "Well, then," said the old
one, " if you don't go back I will kill you." At this the boy took
his campilan and struck at the old one, who disappeared in the air.
Then he kept on his journey, and on reaching a high stone he was
able to look back and see the village from which he had come. The
sight made him cry and he wanted to return, but the recollection
of the order of his uncles made him keep on his way.
By and by a little bird came by and perched upon his shoulder,
and asked him where he was going, and on being told said, " Do not
go any farther because Mimdalanu sa Tunu Midsicau di Uato is wait-
ing for you to kill you." But the boy went on just the same, and that
night slept on the beach in a bed made of magical snake-belt. In
the morning his heart called to him to awake, and when he arose it
was with such a bound that it made the beach tremble.
So he continued on his journey, and by and by came to a stone in
the form of a man. It was named Mamilbang a Uato and was sur-
rounded by a fence made out of wood called Kayo Naniarugun Kayo
Rani Dalandeg, and the land which this fence inclosed belonged to
the wife of Satan. It lay across the road and obstructed his way, so
he took his campilan and cut down the fence, which made the wife
of Satan very mad, so she made the air to be as dark as night ; and
the boy began to cry, for he could not see his way to continue the
journey. Then the wife of Satan made it rain stones as large as
houses, but the boy protected himself by holding his shield over him
and prayed and called for the winds from the home land to come and
help him, which they did, and the air became clear again and the
rain ceased, and then Balatama saw the wife of Satan in a window
of her house and took her to be his mother, for she resembled her so
much. The woman called to him to come up into the house, which
he did, and then she asked him what his errand was, and on being
told said to him, " Do not go any farther, for the Spaniards are wait-
ing for you to kill you." But the boy said he would go on his way
Then the woman asked him if he had a charm of gold in the shape
of a man. The boy answered, and said that he had one. Then he
bade good-by to Satan's wife and started on his journey again.
Soon on the road he met a big man-monster with horns who asked
him where he was going. The boy told him, and then the monster
said to him, * You cannot go any farther ; go back to your country
where you come from." But Balatama took his campilan and made
a stroke at the monster, who disappeared in the air.
154 J ournal of American Folk-Lore.
A little farther on he came across a great snake on the road, who
also asked his errand, and on being told, the snake said, " No, you
cannot pass, for I am the guard on the road, and none can pass
here." So the snake made a motion to seize him, but the boy with
his campilan cut the snake into two pieces and threw one half into
the sea and one half into the mountains and then went on his way.
After many days he came to a stone set in the middle of the road.
It glowed and glistened as if it were made of pure gold, and from
this point he could see the city to which he was going. It was a
fine large town with ten harbors. He saw one house which seemed
to be made of crystal and which he supposed was the house of the
sultan. When he came nearer the city, he saw a house made of
It took him a long time to reach the harbor mouth, although from
the golden stone it appeared to be but a short distance.
When he entered the city gates, he was very careful not to mix
with the crowds, for he did not know what kind of people he would
meet. When he did meet some of the people they asked him where
he was going, but he did not answer them, for they were only work-
ingmen and he, a datto's son, would not converse with them. As
he passed the streets all the people stared at him, but he was very
beautiful and was admired by all ; as he went along he passed a
number of datto's sons playing "sefa." They asked him to play, but
he said he did not know how. Then one of them said, " Who are
you and from where, that you cannot play • sefa ? ' " but the son of
Bantugan said, " You need n't ask of me ; are you the sultan of
this town ? " The young man who had questioned him (Batalasala-
pay an Datto sa Ginaeuaan) said, " I am of high blood," and was
very wroth. " Well," said the son of Bantugan, " if you want to
fight, I guess you can do so now."
So they fought until an old man came and made them stop. In
the mean time some one had carried word to the sultan that there
were two people fighting, so the sultan ordered them both brought
before him. When they were brought, the son of Bantugan went
up and sat down next to the sultan, which made all the other
Moros furious, and then the courtiers begged that he might be
killed, but the sultan said, " No, let us question him first." Ban-
tugan's son said that before he told his errand to the sultan he
wanted all the dattos' sons and dattos present to hear, but they
told him it would take too long to gather them. Then Balatama
said that before he spoke he wanted all persons to take off their hel-
mets. But they thought this was too much and were very wroth,
and wanted to kill him at once. The son of Bantugan then said,
" Pshaw, what are you all to me ? you are nothing." Then the
The Story of Bantugan. 1 5 5
sultan said, " Tut, tut, let all take off their helmets so that we can
hear this young man's story, for if we kill him we will know nothing
of his errand, or from where he comes." So all the helmets were
taken off and Balatama arose and told him his name and where he
was from. And then all became of a good heart again and the sul-
tan then asked Balatama to tell them his errand.
" I am sent by Pasandalan na Murud Bandelo Madayo to ask for
the daughter of the sultan for Datto Bantugan." The sultan then
said to his courtiers, " You, my friends, answer the request." One
courtier then said (Bambay sa Pananian), " I don't see how Bantu-
gan can marry the sultan's daughter, because the first gift (sungut)
must be a figure of a man or a woman in pure gold." "Well," said
Bantugan's son, "I am here to hear what you want and to say
whether it could be given or not." "Well," said another datto,
" you must also give a great yard with the floor of gold, three feet
thick (this datto's name was Midtumula Buisan Ninbantas Balaba-
gan). "Well," said Bantugan's son, "all this can be given." Then
the sister of the princess spoke up and said, " The gifts must be as
many as the blades of grass in this city." " It can be given," said
A datto named Daliday sa Lugungan said, " You must also give a
bridge (talitay) built of stone, to cross the Pulangui (Rio Grande de
Mindanao)." " It can be given," said Balatama.
Batatalatayan now said, " You must change this city from a city
of wooden buildings to a city of stone buildings."
And Dalendegen Sangilan said, " You must give a ship of stone."
Daliday su Milen demanded that all the cocoanuts in the sultan's
grove be turned into gold and also the leaves.
" All this would be done," said the son of Bantugan. "Mapalala
Macog will give the yard of gold ; Malinday Assabarat the bridge of
stone ; Dalumimbang Dalanda the boat of stone ; Matabalau Man-
guda will give the many gifts ; Siagambalanua the golden cocoas.
The golden statue I will give. Very well," said Balatama, "but I
will have to go back my to father's town (Bombalan) to get it."
At this one of the dattos scolded and said, " You are surely a liar
and do not intend to get the statue at all. Let us cut his head off."
And the sultan said, " Yes, let us have the golden statue now or
we will kill you."
" No," said Balatama ; "if I give you the statue now there will be
dreadful storms, rain, and darkness." But they only laughed at him
and demanded the statue. So he reached into the helmet and drew
forth the statue of gold, and immediately there was a great storm and
earthquakes and it rained stones as big as houses. And the sultan
called to Balatama to put back the statue, for they would surely be all
1 56 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
killed if he did not. "Well," said Balatama, "you would not believe
me when I told you, and now I am going to let the storm continue."
But the sultan begged him to put back the statue, and said that if
he would put it back Bantugan might come and marry his daughter
and give no other presents at all but the'golden statue. So Balatama
put back the statue, and the air became calm again, to the great re-
lief of the sultan and the dattos.
" Now," said Balatama, " I will return. But first let me see the
future wife." This was granted, and they asked him when Bantugan
would come to the wedding. He told them in three months. So
Balatama went to the palace and at the door was stopped by a female
guard (Siagambal Anunan Kelam Anandinganan). She told him to
sit down and have some bulla to chew. But he answered and said
that he was but a child, and did not chew it.
When the princess saw the boy she asked him what he came for.
He told her that he had come to see her and then go back and tell
his father of her beauty. The princess gave him a ring and a hand-
kerchief for a present and then he bade her good-by.
On the road home he again met the wife of Satan, who compelled
him to stay with her for four months.
There was a sailor of the sea from Kindalungan Minaga Delandeg
and another from Ibat a Kadalan, a Spanish town. They met on the
high seas, and after greeting each other the second one asked the
first one, " Is it true that Bantugan is going to marry the daughter
of the sultan ? " " Yes," said the first one, " great preparations are
being made for it." Then the second one said, " Why, does he not
know that the great General Linumimbang Sandaw Minabi Salungan
is going to marry the same princess ? " "No," said the first, "and I
suppose it would not make any difference if he did know." So the
sailors separated, and the Spanish sailor went straight up to the gen-
eral and told him that Bantugan was preparing to marry the sultan's
The general at once ordered a great expedition to be prepared,
and called the chief pandita (Batataswalian) and asked him if he
thought it was a good hour for it. " No," said the chief, " if you go
now they will surely have a big fight and you will lose." Neverthe-
less the general embarked in his great warship, the Minanaga su
Macag Maluba Kuman sa Tau, also with him were all of his brothers
and following after him were ten thousand other ships. They went
to the sultan's city, and their number was so great that they filled
the harbor, greatly frightening the people of the city.
And the general's brother disembarked and went to the house of
the sultan, where he demanded the princess for his brother, saying
The Story of Bantugan. 157
that if she was not given the fleet would destroy the city and all the
people. This frightened the sultan and his courtiers very much, so
they decided to give the daughter to the general and asked him to
fix the date for the wedding. He told him that it would be the first
full moon. Then the general's brother left, saying that the general
would soon come to see them.
Bantugan prepared everything for the wedding, which he expected
would take place at the appointed time. But the days went by and
Bantugan and his brothers were very much afraid, for the boy had
not returned and they feared that he was dead. So after the three
months had passed, Bantugan prepared a big expedition to go in
search of his son. The great warship was decorated with flags of
gold and all the mosquito bar was made of silk.
When they came in sight of the sultan's city one of Bantugan's
brothers saw the Spanish fleet in the harbor, and advised Bantugan
not to enter until the Spaniards had left. So they brought their
ship to anchor, and all felt very sad because they could go no farther.
Pidsayana Alungan, a son of Bantugan, came and asked his uncles
why they were so sad, but they would not answer him, so he went
back, and another son, Bulubulu sa Lagat, came and asked the same
of his uncles, but they would not answer him.
Another son now came. Lumbay sa Layagum Pegcaualau Daliday
Malindu came and asked the same of his uncles, but none would
answer him. Lumbay Magapindu came and asked the same ques-
tion, but they would give him no answer.
Now came Datto Baningan, who asked the same question of the
brothers of Bantugan, saying, " Fear not." But they would give him
Pandi Macalele came and asked of his brothers, "Why didn't
you answer ? Why don't we go on ? Even if the grass turns into
Spaniards we need not fear." Then Mapalala Macog came and
asked the same, saying, "Why do you fear? even if the cannon-balls
come like rain and lightning, we can fight always." But still no
answer. Then Marandung Datto Sulung came and spoke to Bantu-
gan. " Why do all our brothers not answer when questioned ? Do
they fear the Spaniards ? Anyway, we are here only to find the son
who has not returned, so let us return to Bombalan." "No," said
Bantugan, " let us seek my son, and even if we enter the harbor
where the Spaniards are, let us continue the search." So at Bantu-
gan's command the anchors were raised and they sailed into the
harbor where lay the Spanish fleet.
The general and his brother were with the sultan, and were about
158 Journal of American Folk-Lore.
to go and call to see the princess, and when they reached the palace
the daughter called them in and was very nice to them, offering the
bulla to the gentlemen.
The general's brother admired one of the sisters of the princess
very much, and asked her for bulla, but she laughed at him and would
not give it, called him names, and made much fun with him, saying,
he was not the general's brother, etc., etc., but only a bilan, manobo,
or tiruray, and could not marry her, for he must marry a tiruray.
This made the brother of the general very mad and he drew his kris
to strike her, but his companion stopped him. Then the sister of the
princess said to him, " Why don't you kill me ? I am not afraid of
you ; " and then she went to the window to cool off, for shewas very
mad at the general and his brother. And the sight of the Spanish
fleet in the harbor increased her rage, but just then a parrot with
golden plumage hopped into the window and told her to look out
into the harbor mouth and there she saw Bantugan's ships entering
the harbor, so she called her sister to see them, who came, but could
not tell whose flags they were. Then the general's brother came
and looked and said, " We must go and see at once whether it is the
fleet of Bantugan, and if it is we must go and kill him and all his
So the brother returned to the sultan and asked him if he knew
whose ships were coming into the harbor. The sultan said, " No,
I do not know, but will send for my father and see if he knows." So
he sent one of his brothers to go and call the father, who, as he was
very old, was kept in a little dark room by himself, so he could not
get hurt. The sultan said, " If he is so bent with age that he cannot
see, talk, or walk, tickle him in the ribs, and that will make him
young again, and you, my brother, carry him here yourself. Do not
trust him to the slaves, for if he should fall he would break himself
and die." So the old man was brought, and when he looked at the
flags on the ship he said that they were the flags of Bapa ni Bantu-
gan (father of Bantugan), who was a great friend of his in his
younger days ; and then he told the sultan that he and Bantugan's
father had made a contract years ago that their children and chil-
dren's children should intermarry, and now the sultan had promised
his daughter to two people and that great trouble would come on
the land. So the sultan said to the general, " Here are two claimers
to my daughter's hand. Go aboard your ships and you and Bantu-
gan go and fight it out, and he who wins will have my daughter."
So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days
the earth was covered with smoke from the battle, so that neither
could see his enemy. The Spanish general said, " I cannot see
Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so let us go and claim ihe princess."
The Story of Bantugan. 159
And when they reached the sultan they demanded his daughter, but
the sultan said, " No, let us wait until the smoke rises to make sure
that Bantugan is gone."
Pamanay Macalayan called to Maladia Langig and they two went
to Bantugan and decided to engage the Spanish fleet. They took
down the flags of gold and put up the battle-flags, and when they
came within range of the Spanish fleet they opened fire, and their
cannon-balls carried away great pieces of the mountains, and many
of the Spanish fleet were sunk and great darkness and smoke came
over the earth.
When the smoke arose the ships of Bantugan were seen to be all
unharmed, so the sultan said, " Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet
is uninjured and yours is badly damaged and you have lost." " No,"
said the general, "we will fight it out on land." So he landed all
of his troops and cannon and made ready to meet Bantugan on the
land, and when all were landed and ready the Spaniard sent his
challenge against Bantugan. Bantugan landed his troops and can-
non, but before he commenced fighting he paid his respects to the
princess and sultan in case he should be killed. After the fight
had begun the Spaniards saw that they could never win with guns
and cannon, so they set upon Bantugan with campilans and spears,
and soon the general's brother (Masuala Subangam) was killed by
Bantugan. Before long the ground was covered with corpses and
the rivers were dammed up with their numbers. So the sultan sent
word for them not to fight any more, for the air and water were so
polluted with the dead bodies. But the Spaniard answered and said,
" If you give your daughter to Bantugan we will fight forever or
until we are dead." The sultan sent a messenger to Bantugan say-
ing, " Let us deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away.
Let us tell him that you will not marry my daughter, and then we
are sure he will leave, and then after he is gone, we can have the
wedding." Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Span-
iards that Bantugan would not marry the sultan's daughter, and that
the fighting should cease, because the cannon-balls were killing
many of the women and children in the city. The Spaniard and
Bantugan agreed that neither of them should marry the Princess
and that they should be friends. So both the Spaniard and Bantu-
gan sailed away to their home. But Bantugan soon returned and
married the princess and continued on his search for his son. He
soon found him in the house of the wife of Satan, and took him
home with him.
vol. xv. — no. 58. 12
1 60 "Journal of A merican Folk-Lore.
The Spanish general sailed away for about a week, for his home,
and then turned about to return to take the princess away by force,
for his heart was deceitful, and when he arrived at the city of the
sultan, and found that the princess had been carried away by Ban-
tugan, his wrath knew no bounds, so that he destroyed the sultan,
his city, and all of its people, and then sailed away to his own city
to prepare a great expedition with which he should utterly annihilate
Bantugan and his country.
When he arrived off the mouth of the Pulangui with his enormous
fleet, their numbers were so great that the horizon could not be seen
in any direction.
When Bantugan saw this display of force, his heart sank within
him, for he saw that he and his country were doomed to destruction,
as he could not hope to gain in a fight with so formidable an antag-
onist, and such great superiority in numbers. They called a meet-
ing of all the dattos and none could offer any advice, so Bantugan
arose and said, " My brothers, the Christian dogs have come to de-
stroy the land, and we cannot successfully oppose them, yet we can
die in defence of the fatherland." So the great warship of Bantu-
gan was again prepared and all the soldiers of Islam embarked
thereon, and all their dattos, and with Bantugan standing at the
bow they sailed forth to meet their fate. As they approached the
Spanish fleet, Bantugan shouted forth his war-song, —
With my campilan which kills many, with my bloody campilan, shining with
its gold ornaments, its bombol (a tassel of red hair attached to the handle of the
campilan) made from the hair of a beautiful widow, which flashes like the ray of
the sun at sunrise. With the beauty of its golden grip coming from the heaven
heavenly. Its edge sharp as lightning and reaching even to the heavens. Flash-
ing of its own accord and thirsting for the blood of the Christian dogs. I take it
in my hands with such force that the gems in my rings burst from their settings,
and fly away like birds.
I take my shield painted by my sister, inlaid with flashing pearl. Its grip made
of pure gold. Its button a great brilliant. My belt of golden snake. My amu-
lets of pearl, the buttons on my armor taken from the stars. My turban of silver
cloth and my helmet of gold. I go to my death, but with me shall die many of
ye, Christian dogs.
The fighting soon became fast and furious, but in less than a day
it was plainly seen that the Spaniards were winning, and the great
warship of Bantugan was filling with water until at last it sank,
drawing with it hundreds of the Spaniard's ships, and then a strange
thing happened. At the very point where Bantugan's warship sank
there arose from the sea a great island covered with bongo palms.
The wife of Bantugan, when she saw that her husband was no
more and that his warship was destroyed, gathered together the
remaining warriors and set forth herself to avenge him. In a few
The Story of Bantugan. 161
hours her ship was also sunk and in the place where it sank there
arose the mountain of Timaco.
This is the Moro version of the Spanish occupation of Mindanao.
Bongos Island is situated about three miles off the mouth of the
Rio Grande de Mindanao and is the island said by the Moros to
have arisen where Bantugan' s ship had sunk. They say that deep
within its mountains lives Bantugan and his warriors, and that when-
ever a Moro's vinta or sailing boat passes by Bongos Island, Bantu-
gan has watchers out to see whether or not there are women in the
vinta, and if there are any that suit his fancy, they are snatched
from their seats and carried deep into the interior of the mountain.
For this reason the Moro women are very reluctant to go to the
island of Bongos or even to sail by it.
Timaco is an island marking the south side of the entrance to the
north branch of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It consists of one
tall hill thickly covered with trees, and on it are found the only
specimens of the " white monkey." These are said by the Moros
to be the servants of Bantugan' s wife, who lives in the centre of the
mountain. A Moro would not hurt one of them, but feeds them
regularly. It is said that on a still day if one goes high up the
mountain and listens carefully, he can hear the chanting and singing
of the waiting girls of the wife of Bantugan and also hear the col-
ingtangan (Moro musical instrument like a xylophone).
Ralph S. Porter, U. S. V.